Indoor and Built Environment
Estimation of radon concentrations and associated radon doses by using active technique in drinking water sources of Abbottabad, KPK, Pakistan
In-situ measurement of radon concentration was carried out in three types of drinking water sources (spring, surface and bore/well). Water samples from all three sources were collected from the city of Abbottabad and its surroundings. Radon concentrations were measured through active technique, using the AB-5 series of portable radiation monitor (Pylon). The mean concentrations (ranges) of radon in the phosphate region were 13.4_2.0 (9.1–23.6), 11.2_1.5 (6.2–20.1) and 7.1_0.9 (4.3–14) kBq m_3 in well, spring and surface waters, respectively. Similarly, the mean concentrations (ranges) of radon outside the phosphate region were 7.2_1.0 (3.4–11.5), 5.4_0.7 (2.5–8.9) and 3.1_0.4 (1.7–5.8) kBq m_3 in well, spring and surface waters, respectively. The arithmetic mean values of radon concentration in drinking waters in the phosphate and non-phosphate parts or rocks were 10.76_1.5 and 5.10_0.70 kBqm_3, respectively. Respective doses of radon taken in by the people via water ingestion and inhalation were calculated as 0.029_0.004 and 0.014_0.002 mSv. The mean values of radon concentrations in drinking water samples collected from Abbottabad phosphate and non-phosphate rocks were below the US EPA Maximum Contamination Level (MCL) of 11.1 kBqm_3. The annual mean effective doses of all samples are lower than the reference level of 0.1mSva_1 for drinking water as recommended by WHO. Thus, the drinking water of Abbottabad and its surroundings is generally below the recommended levels as regards to radon-related health hazards.
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